How to trade cryptocurrencies
The cryptocurrency market has exploded in popularity in recent years, which has created a range of opportunities for traders to speculate on market prices. But before you open a position, it is important to know how to trade cryptocurrencies – so, we’ve compiled a list of everything you need to know to get started.
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Cryptocurrency trading steps
The cryptocurrency market can be daunting for beginners and seasoned traders alike due to the vast amount of jargon and processes involved. We’ve broken it down into six simple steps to help you better understand the cryptocurrency market and how to trade it:
Decide how you’d like to trade cryptocurrencies
There are three routes to dealing on cryptocurrencies: speculating on their prices using spread bets or CFDs, or buying the digital currencies in the hope they increase in value.
Trading cryptocurrencies using spread bets
Cryptocurrency spread betting is a method of speculating on the price of a cryptocurrency, without taking ownership of the digital currency itself. When you open a spread betting position, you are making a bet on the direction that you believe the cryptocurrency’s price is headed. If the market moves in the direction you have predicted, you will profit, but if it moves against you, you will make a loss.
Spread betting is a popular choice among cryptocurrency traders because you don’t pay tax on your profits.1
Trading cryptocurrencies using CFDs
A CFD is a contract in which you agree to exchange the difference in the price of a cryptocurrency from when you first open your position to when you close it. Like spread betting, you are speculating on the price of the market, rather than taking ownership of the cryptocurrency. If you open a long position and the cryptocurrency does increase in value, you’ll make a profit, but if it falls in price, you’ll make a loss – the opposite is true for a short position.
Unlike spread bets, CFDs are liable for capital gains tax, but you can offset any losses against your profits for tax purposes.1
Buying cryptocurrencies via an exchange
Alternatively, you might decide to buy a cryptocurrency, which means that you take ownership of a portion of the digital currency outright, with the intention of holding it in a digital wallet and profiting if it increases in value.
Before you can start, you would need to open a cryptocurrency wallet, and an account with a cryptocurrency exchange. There can be a lot of steps to this process, and you might have to join a waiting list for an account.
Learn how the cryptocurrency market works
The cryptocurrency market operates in a different way from other financial markets, which makes it vital to learn how it works, and understand the jargon used to describe it, before you start trading.
The cryptocurrency market is a decentralised digital currency network, which means that it operates through a system of peer-to-peer transaction checks, rather than a central server. When cryptocurrencies are bought and sold, the transactions are added to the blockchain – a shared digital ledger which records data – through a process called ‘mining’.
Cryptocurrencies are also famously volatile, which makes it important to know what is likely to move the market – this could be anything from ICOs and blockchain forks, to breaking news and government regulation.
Open an account
When you trade on cryptocurrencies, instead of buying them, you can be ready to open a position much faster. You don’t need a digital wallet or an account with an exchange. In fact, all you need to trade via spread betting or CFDs, is an account with a leveraged trading provider.
With IG, you can open an account in minutes, and there’s no obligation to add funds until you want to place a trade.
Build a trading plan
Having a trading plan is crucial to success for any trader but even more so for cryptocurrency traders because the market can see high amounts of volatility. This is a double-edged sword: volatility makes the market extremely attractive, but difficult to trade. This is why your trading plan should include risk management tools, as well as an outline of your goals, which cryptocurrency you want to trade, and a methodology for entering and exiting trades – known as a trading strategy.
Your plan should also include the way you will analyse the cryptocurrency market: either through technical or fundamental analysis. Technical analysis focuses on the price movement of a cryptocurrency and its historical patterns, while fundamental analysis looks at the external factors and macroeconomic data that impact the digital asset. Whichever method you choose, it is important to remain up to date with any news that could impact the market, as cryptocurrencies are especially sensitive to market sentiment.
Choose your cryptocurrency trading platform
Our trading platforms can provide you with a smarter and faster way to trade cryptocurrencies – with personalised alerts, interactive charts and built-in risk management tools. You can trade via the IG trading platform using:
- Your web browser
- One of our mobile apps
- Advanced third-party platforms such as MT4
Open, monitor and close your first position
As there is no need to own a digital wallet, once you have opened your account with IG and chosen your platform, you can start trading cryptocurrencies straight away.
Whether you have decided to trade bitcoin, ripple, ether, litecoin or another cryptocurrency, all you need to do is open the deal ticket for your chosen market, and you’ll see both a buy and a sell price listed. You’ll be able to decide the size of your position, and then select buy to open a long position or sell to open a short position. Remember, you can add stops or limits to close your trade once it hits a certain level and protect your trade from unnecessary risks.
You can monitor the profit/loss of your position in the ‘open positions’ section of the dealing platform. And when you have decided that it’s time to close your position, you just need to place an equivalent trade in the opposite direction.
Cryptocurrency trading examples
To help you understand how to trade cryptocurrencies, we’ve complied two examples of cryptocurrency trades and their possible outcomes.
Cryptocurrency spread bet example: buying bitcoin
Let’s say that you are interested in trading bitcoin, and decide to open a long spread bet position against the US dollar (bitcoin/USD).
The current market price is 6365. As you believe that the value of bitcoin is going to increase in value, you decide to buy £20 per point at the buy price of 6370, which is slightly higher than the market price due to the spread. For every $1/1pt. change in the market value of bitcoin, you will profit (or lose) £20.
Your total exposure is £127,400.
If your prediction is correct
If you were right, and the price of bitcoin rises against the US dollar, your trade would make a profit. Let’s say that the market rises to a new price of 6500, which means that the market has moved 130 points in your favour. At this point you decide to close your position and realise your profit, selling at the sell price of 6475, which is slightly lower than the market price due to the spread.
The calculation of your profit is as follows: (£20 x 105) = £2100.
If your prediction is incorrect
However, if the market moves against you and the value of bitcoin falls against the US dollar, your position would make a loss. Let’s say that the market falls to 6300, so you decide to close your position to prevent further losses – selling at a price of 6275.
As the market has moved 95 points against you, the calculation for the loss on your trade is: (£20 x 95) = £1900.
CFD trading example: selling ether
Instead of a spread bet, you might decide to open a CFD trade. In this example, you believe that the price of ether – the token of the Ethereum network – is going to fall in value, and decide to go short by selling ether against the US dollar (ether/USD).
The current market price is 201, but you would sell at 200.3 – slightly below the market price, due to the spread. You decide to sell 5 contracts (each equivalent to 1 ETH) to open a position at this price.
If your prediction is correct
If you were right, and the value of ether fell against the US dollar, your trade would profit. Let’s say that the new market price is 150, you could close your position and take your profit by buying 5 contacts to close your position at the buy price of 150.7, which is slightly higher than the market price due to the spread.
Because the market has moved 49.6 points in your favour, the profit on your trade would be calculated as follows: 5 x 49.6 = $248.
If your prediction is incorrect
However, if the value of ether rose against the US dollar, your position would be closed at a loss. Let’s say that you decide to exit the trade after the market rose by 15 points to 215 – so buy back 5 contracts at the buy price of 215.7. This would mean the loss to your position was 5 x 15.4 = $77.
The cryptocurrency market operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week, which means that there is no best time to trade as price changes can happen at any time. And as cryptos are traded all over the world, the varying time zones means that the market will always be active somewhere.
Although around the clock trading creates more opportunities to trade, it also makes it important to have risk management tools in place, so that you have peace of mind while you are not around to monitor the market.
With IG, cryptocurrencies are available to trade any time from 8am on Saturday to 10pm on Friday (UK time).
Like all markets, the cryptocurrency market is driven by the forces of supply and demand. A variety of factors can impact the supply and demand of cryptocurrencies, including:
- Market fear
- Technological progress
- Politics and government regulation
- Health of fiat currencies
Our pricing algorithm looks across multiple exchanges and derives a fair mid-price, adding a number of points either side – known as the spread – to produce the price we publish on our platform.
Due to the spread, your position needs to move a certain distance before you’re in profit, and this represents our fee for the trade. You would also need to pay a fee if you want to keep your position open overnight.
Develop your knowledge of financial markets
Find out more about a range of markets and test yourself with IG Academy’s online courses.
1 Tax laws are subject to change and depend on individual circumstances. Tax law may differ in a jurisdiction other than the UK.